Below you find an interactive list of all my publications, which can be filtered by keywords, year, publication type and coauthors. There are also static lists of my books/book-chapters as well as journal-, conference-, and submitted publications.

## 2023 |

Hossain, Sumon; Trenn, Stephan Reduced realization for switched linear systems with known mode sequence Journal Article In: Automatica, vol. 154, no. 111065, pp. 1-9, 2023, (open access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: controllability, model-reduction, observability, open-access, switched-systems @article{HossTren23a, We consider switched linear systems with mode-dependent state-dimensions and/or state jumps and propose a method to obtain a switched system of reduced size with identical input-output behavior. Our approach is based in considering time-dependent reachability and unobservability spaces as well as suitable extended reachability and restricted unobservability spaces together with the notion of a weak Kalman decomposition. A key feature of our approach is that only the mode sequence of the switching signal needs to be known and not the exact switching times. However, the size of a minimal realization will in general depend on the mode durations, hence it cannot be expected that our method always leads to minimal realization. Nevertheless, we show that our method is optimal in the sense that a repeated application doesn’t lead to a further reduction and we also highlight a practically relevant special case, where minimality is achieved. |

## 2022 |

Hossain, Sumon; Sutrisno,; Trenn, Stephan A time-varying approach for model reduction of singular linear switched systems in discrete time Miscellaneous Extended Abstracts of the 25th International Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems, 2022. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: controllability, DAEs, discrete-time, model-reduction, observability, open-access, switched-DAEs, switched-systems @misc{HossSutr22m, We propose a model reduction approach for singular linear switched systems in discrete time with a fixed mode sequence based on a balanced truncation reduction method for linear time-varying discrete-time systems. The key idea is to use the one-step map to find an equivalent time-varying system with an identical input-output behavior, and then adapt available balance truncation methods for (discrete) time-varying systems. The proposed method is illustrated with a low-dimensional academic example. |

Wijnbergen, Paul; Trenn, Stephan Linear quadratic optimal control of switched differential algebraic equations Miscellaneous Extended Abstracts of the 25th International Symposium on Mathematical Theory of Networks and Systems, 2022. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: DAEs, open-access, optimal-control, switched-DAEs, switched-systems @misc{WijnTren22mb, In this abstract the finite horizon linear quadratic optimal control problem with constraints on the terminal state for switched differential algebraic equations is considered. Furthermore, we seek for an optimal solution that is impulse-free. In order to solve the problem, a non standard finite horizon problem for non-switched DAEs is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the initial value x0 for solvability of this non standard problem are stated. Based on these results a sequence of subspaces can be defined which lead to necessary and sufficient conditions for solvability of the finite horizon optimal control problem for switched DAEs. |

Berger, Thomas; Ilchmann, Achim; Trenn, Stephan Quasi feedback forms for differential-algebraic systems Journal Article In: IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information, vol. 39, iss. 2, pp. 533-563, 2022, (open access, published online October 2021). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: controllability, DAEs, normal-forms, open-access @article{BergIlch22, We investigate feedback forms for linear time-invariant systems described by differential-algebraic equations. Feedback forms are representatives of certain equivalence classes. For example state space transformations, invertible transformations from the left, and proportional state feedback constitute an equivalence relation. The representative of such an equivalence class, which we call proportional feedback form for the above example, allows to read off relevant system theoretic properties. Our main contribution is to derive a quasi proportional feedback form. This form is advantageous since it provides some geometric insight and is simple to compute, but still allows to read off the relevant structural properties of the control system. We also derive a quasi proportional and derivative feedback form. Similar advantages hold. |

Mostacciuolo, Elisa; Trenn, Stephan; Vasca, Francesco A smooth model for periodically switched descriptor systems Journal Article In: Automatica, vol. 136, no. 110082, pp. 1-8, 2022, (open access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: averaging, DAEs, open-access, switched-DAEs, switched-systems @article{MostTren22, Switched descriptor systems characterized by a repetitive finite sequence of modes can exhibit state discontinuities at the switching time instants. The amplitudes of these discontinuities depend on the consistency projectors of the modes. A switched ordinary differential equations model whose continuous state evolution approximates the state of the original system is proposed. Sufficient conditions based on linear matrix inequalities on the modes projectors ensure that the approximation error is of linear order of the switching period. The theoretical findings are applied to a switched capacitor circuit and numerical results illustrate the practical usefulness of the proposed model. |

## 2021 |

Hossain, Sumon; Trenn, Stephan Minimality of Linear Switched Systems with known switching signal Proceedings Article In: Proceedings in Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, pp. 1-3, 2021, (open access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: controllability, model-reduction, observability, open-access, switched-systems @inproceedings{HossTren21a, Minimal realization is discussed for linear switched systems with a given switching signal. We propose a consecutive forward and backward approach for the time-interval of interest. The forward approach refers to extending the reachable subspace at each switching time by taking into account the nonzero reachable space from the previous mode. Afterwards, the backward approach extends the observable subspace of the current mode by taking observability information from the next mode into account. This results in an overall reduced switched system which is minimal and has the same input-output behavior as original system. Some examples are provided to illustrate the approach. |

Trenn, Stephan Distributional restriction impossible to define Journal Article In: Examples and Counterexamples, vol. 1, no. 100023, pp. 1-4, 2021, (open access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: open-access, piecewise-smooth-distributions, solution-theory @article{Tren21, A counterexample is presented showing that it is not possible to define a restriction for distributions. |

Chen, Yahao; Trenn, Stephan; Respondek, Witold Normal forms and internal regularization of nonlinear differential-algebraic control systems Journal Article In: International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 2021, no. 31, pp. 6562-6584, 2021, (open access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: DAEs, nonlinear, normal-forms, open-access, solution-theory @article{ChenTren21d, In this paper, we propose two normal forms for nonlinear differential-algebraic control systems (DACSs) under external feedback equivalence, using a notion called maximal controlled invariant submanifold. The two normal forms simplify the system structures and facilitate understanding the various roles of variables for nonlinear DACSs. Moreover, we study when a given nonlinear DACS is internally regularizable, i.e., when there exists a state feedback transforming the DACS into a differential-algebraic equation (DAE) with internal regularity, the latter notion is closely related to the existence and uniqueness of solutions of DAEs. We also revise a commonly used method in DAE solution theory, called the geometric reduction method. We apply this method to DACSs and formulate it as an algorithm, which is used to construct maximal controlled invariant submanifolds and to find internal regularization feedbacks. Two examples of mechanical systems are used to illustrate the proposed normal forms and to show how to internally regularize DACSs. |

Iervolino, Raffaele; Trenn, Stephan; Vasca, Francesco Asymptotic stability of piecewise affine systems with Filippov solutions via discontinuous piecewise Lyapunov functions Journal Article In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 1513-1528, 2021. Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: LMIs, nonlinear, open-access, solution-theory, stability, switched-systems @article{IervTren21, Asymptotic stability of continuous-time piecewise affine systems defined over a polyhedral partition of the state space, with possible discontinuous vector field on the boundaries, is considered. In the first part of the paper the feasible Filippov solution concept is introduced by characterizing single-mode Caratheodory, sliding mode and forward Zeno behaviors. Then, a global asymptotic stability result through a (possibly discontinuous) piecewise Lyapunov function is presented. The sufficient conditions are based on pointwise classifications of the trajectories which allow the identification of crossing, unreachable and Caratheodory boundaries. It is shown that the sign and jump conditions of the stability theorem can be expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities by particularizing to piecewise quadratic Lyapunov functions and using the cone-copositivity approach. Several examples illustrate the theoretical arguments and the effectiveness of the stability result. |

Chen, Yahao; Trenn, Stephan An approximation for nonlinear differential-algebraic equations via singular perturbation theory Proceedings Article In: Proceedings of 7th IFAC Conference on Analysis and Design of Hybrid Systems (ADHS21), IFAC-PapersOnLine, pp. 187-192, Brussels, Belgium, 2021, (open access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: DAEs, nonlinear, normal-forms, open-access, solution-theory @inproceedings{ChenTren21c, In this paper, we study the jumps of nonlinear DAEs caused by inconsistent initial values. First, we propose a simple normal form called the index-1 nonlinear Weierstrass form (INWF) for nonlinear DAEs. Then we generalize the notion of consistency projector introduced in Liberzon and Trenn (2009) for linear DAEs to the nonlinear case. By an example, we compare our proposed nonlinear consistency projectors with two existing consistent initialization methods (one is from the paper Liberzon and Trenn (2012) and the other is given by a MATLAB function) to show that the two existing methods are not coordinate-free, i.e., the consistent points calculated by the two methods are not invariant under nonlinear coordinates transformations. Next we propose a singular perturbed system approximation for nonlinear DAEs, which is an ordinary differential equation (ODE) with a small perturbation parameter and we show that the solutions of the proposed perturbation system approximate both the jumps resulting from the nonlinear consistency projectors and the C1-solutions of the DAE. At last, we use a numerical simulation of a nonlinear DAE model arising from an electric circuit to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed singular perturbed system approximation of DAEs. |

## 2020 |

Borsche, Raul; Kocoglu, Damla; Trenn, Stephan A distributional solution framework for linear hyperbolic PDEs coupled to switched DAEs Journal Article In: Mathematics of Control, Signals, and Systems (MCSS), vol. 32, pp. 455-487, 2020, (Open Access). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: DAEs, delay, networks, open-access, PDEs, piecewise-smooth-distributions, solution-theory, switched-DAEs @article{BorsKoco20, A distributional solution framework is developed for systems consisting of linear hyperbolic partial differential equations (PDEs) and switched differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) which are coupled via boundary conditions. The unique solvability is then characterize in terms of a switched delay DAE. The theory is illustrated with an example of electric power lines modeled by the telegraph equations which are coupled via a switching transformer where simulations confirm the predicted impulsive solutions. |

Wijnbergen, Paul; Jeeninga, Mark; Trenn, Stephan On stabilizability of switched differential algebraic equations Proceedings Article In: IFAC-PapersOnLine 53-2, pp. 4304-4309, 2020, (Proc. IFAC World Congress 2020, Berlin, Germany. Open access.). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: DAEs, open-access, stability, switched-DAEs, switched-systems @inproceedings{WijnJeen20, This paper considers stabilizability of switched differential algebraic equations (DAEs). We first introduce the notion of interval stabilizability and show that under a certain uniformity assumption, stabilizability can be concluded from interval stabilizability. A geometric approach is taken to find necessary and sufficient conditions for interval stabilizability. This geometric approach can also be utilized to derive a novel characterization of controllability. |

Hossain, Sumon; Trenn, Stephan A time-varying Gramian based model reduction approach for Linear Switched Systems Proceedings Article In: IFAC PapersOnline 53-2, pp. 5629-5634, 2020, (Proc. IFAC World Congress 2020, Berlin, Germany. Open access.). Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: model-reduction, open-access, switched-systems @inproceedings{HossTren20a, We propose a model reduction approach for switched linear system based on a balanced truncation reduction method for linear time-varying systems. The key idea is to approximate the piecewise-constant coefficient matrices with continuous time-varying coefficients and then apply available balance truncation methods for (continuous) time-varying systems. The proposed method is illustrated with a low dimensional academic example. |