In cooperation with colleagues from Seoul National University we have submitted the following paper
Lee, Jin Gyu; Trenn, Stephan; Shim, Hyungbo
2021, (submitted for publication).
In this paper, we introduce a nonlinear time-varying coupling law, which can be designed in a fully decentralized manner and achieves approximate synchronization with arbitrary precision, under only mild assumptions on the individual vector fields and the underlying graph structure. The proposed coupling law is motivated by the funnel control studied in adaptive controls under the observation that arbitrary precision synchronization can be achieved for heterogeneous multi-agent systems by the high-gain coupling, and thus, we follow to call our coupling law as `(node-wise) funnel coupling.' By getting out of the conventional proof technique in the funnel control study, we now can obtain even asymptotic or finite-time synchronization with the same funnel coupling law. More interestingly, the emergent collective behavior that arises for a heterogeneous multi-agent system when enforcing arbitrary precision synchronization by the proposed funnel coupling law, has been analyzed in this paper.
In particular, we introduce a single scalar dynamics called `emergent dynamics' that is capable of illustrating the emergent synchronized behavior by its solution trajectory.
Characterization of the emergent dynamics is important because, for instance, one can design the emergent dynamics first such that the solution trajectory behaves as desired, and then, provide a design guideline to each agent so that the constructed vector fields yield the desired emergent dynamics. A particular example illustrating the utility of the emergent dynamics is given also in the paper as a distributed median solver.
Already in our 2015 CDC paper
Shim, Hyungbo; Trenn, Stephan
In: Proc. 54th IEEE Conf. Decis. Control, Osaka, Japan, pp. 2229–2234, 2015.
We propose a new approach to achieve practical synchronization for heterogeneous agents. Our approach is based on the observation that a sufficiently large (but constant) gain for diffusive coupling leads to practical synchronization. In the classical setup of high-gain adaptive control, the funnel controller gained popularity in the last decade, because it is very simple and only structural knowledge of the underlying dynamical system is needed. We illustrate with simulations that “funnel synchronization” may be a promising approach to achieve practical synchronization of heterogeneous agents without the need to know the individual dynamics and the algebraic connectivity of the network (i.e., the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix). For a special case we provide a proof, but the proof for the general case is ongoing research.